Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral, José Jurado-Bello, M. Isabel Sánchez, Rodrígues de Oliveira, and Antonio Trapero | View Article The influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. Detached olive fruit of ‘Arbequina’, ‘Hojiblanca’, and ‘Picual’ were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°C in humid chambers. Similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 h. Infection occurred at 10 to 25°C, and disease severity was greater and the mean latent period was shorter at 17 to...
Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral and Antonio Trapero | View Article Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 108 conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 104 conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five...
Anthracnose in olives: symptoms, disease cycle and management

Anthracnose in olives: symptoms, disease cycle and management

V. Sergeeva | View Article Anthracnose, caused by the fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is a widespread and severe disease in most olive-growing countries, causing significant yield losses, poor fruit and oil quality. The disease incidence depends on olive variety, environment and virulence of the pathogen among other factors. Warm, rainy, misty and humid conditions or heavy dews have been observed to be associated with severe anthracnose epidemics. The disease may affect up to 80% of olives in susceptible cultivars such as ‘Barnea’ and ‘Manzanillo’ in...
Cherry leafroll virus: Impact on olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality

Cherry leafroll virus: Impact on olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality

Sara Godena, Alessandra Bendini, Elisa Giambanelli, Lorenzo Cerretani, Damir Ðermic´ and Edyta Ðermic | View Article We performed a survey on the yield, quality, and chemical characteristics of virgin olive oils from two olive varieties in Croatian Istria: Frantoio and Ascolana tenera, on Cherry leafroll virus-infected and virusnoninfected trees and on two harvest dates. Free acidity, peroxide value, specific spectrophotometric absorptions at 232 and 270 nm, fatty acid composition, total phenols, o-diphenols, oil color, and pigments were determined. Infected olives had lower oil yield and maturity index versus healthy ones. Oils from infected fruits had significant lower value of K232 and K270 and very elevated total phenols content compared to those obtained from healthy...
Abiotic Diseases of Olive

Abiotic Diseases of Olive

S.M. Sanzani, L. Schena, F. Nigro, V. Sergeeva, A. Ippolito and M.G. Salerno | View Article Several non-parasitic diseases are of primary significance for olive trees growing in the Mediterranean area and other warm-temperate regions of the world. As for other crops, they are generally poorly understood and often completely unrecognized, especially in olive which is considered a crop of marginal lands. The origin may rest with a lack/excess of essential nutrients or an excess of non-essential elements; it may be an unsatisfactory environment: too cold or hot, too wet or dry, or too windy; there may be unsuitable soil characteristics such as poor physical condition, water-logging, salinity, improper pH, and so on. Also pollution in the environment, spray and fire damage, and climatic extremes like lightning, hail, and snow can cause heavy losses to olive. This review focuses on the most important disorders of olive caused by environmental, physical, and chemical stresses that can affect the normal physiological processes in trees. An integrated view is utilized to highlight interactions with plant healthiness, production, and...