The olive: uses and benefits of its oil, fruit and leaves

The olive: uses and benefits of its oil, fruit and leaves

Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are among the oldest historically important fruit trees. References to olives within the western civilized world date back to Biblical and Roman times and to Greek mythology. Extra virgin olive oil proved itself indispensable in the ancient world, and was called “liquid gold” by Homer and “the great healer” by Hippocrates, placing olive oil at the top of the food and medicine list (Clodoveo et al., 2014). Kings were anointed with olive oil as a sign that they were chosen by God to rule (1 Samuel 16:1). Olive oil was considered by the Egyptian and Minoan civilizations to be of vital importance, and it was sometimes used as a form of currency (Arte Legno, 2016). The oil, fruit, and leaves of the olive tree have an ancient history of nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Olives and olive leaves are the first botanicals prominently noted in the Bible, in Ezekiel 47:12, “The fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine” – thus its nickname, “Tree of Life.” The Spartans rubbed olive oil on their bodies as a moisturizer and to emphasize their physique, while Greek athletes received olive-oil massages. Early Roman emperors gave olive oil as gifts during celebrations. The Romans developed the screw press to extract the oil, a technology that is still used today. In the Eastern world, the first Japanese known to have eaten olive fruits was Toyotomi Hideyoshi, an Imperial Regent of Japan. He received a barrel of salted olives from Spanish King Felipe II in 1594. In the early 1860s, the shogun’s physician, Hayashi Doukai, who...
Management of olive lace bug

Management of olive lace bug

Every year I receive several emails like the one above concerning Olive Lace Bug (OLB). It is a serious olive tree pest which can cause heavy defoliation and total crop failure if not managed effectively. Effective control depends just as much on ensuring your olive trees are in optimal healthy as it does on controlling the numbers of OLB by a well-timed spraying regime. The three most important areas to focus on are: Tree Health Spotting OLB early in the Spring Early, Effective use of insecticide sprays Read Full...
Effective environmentally-sensitive pest management in olive production

Effective environmentally-sensitive pest management in olive production

View Publication In recent years increasing global interest in health and the environment has stimulated studies of alternatives to the usual procedures for controlling pests and diseases. As a result, management decisions now take into account the impact of control methods on native flora and fauna. Control of olive pests continues to attract interest and requires a high level of attention. Pest control is fundamental to sustainable olive crop production, in terms of both quality and quantity; however the protection of the environment is now factored into the equation. In particular, diseases and pests associated with environmental stress and unfavorable climatic conditions impact greatly on sustainable olive production and olive oil quality. They must be controlled, while also ensuring the exclusion of chemical residues in table olives and olive oil, a central aspect of product quality and food safety for the industry. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices, and has proven a viable answer to both of these...
The Role of Epidemiology Data in Developing Integrated Management of Anthracnose in Olives – a Review

The Role of Epidemiology Data in Developing Integrated Management of Anthracnose in Olives – a Review

Read Online Colletotrichum species have the capacity to produce asymptomatic latent (quiescent) infections on various olive tree tissues: during this symptomless biotrophic phase, the pathogen invades the host without killing them and feeds on living cells. Re-infection of the tree by the repeating conidial stage is then responsible for increased anthracnose symptoms during summer, leading to new growths. Normally developed fruit and fruit damaged by abiotic factors, leaves and stems may have asymptomatic infections of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in susceptible cultivars ‘Barnea’, ‘Manzanillo’ and ‘Kalamata’. Anthracnose under favourable conditions can also infect less susceptible cultivars. The infection can persist from season to season, depending on olive cultivar, environment, crop management, and pathogen virulence. Brown lesions with anthracnose fungal spores were observed in young green stems and leaves and dieback of young shoot tips of olive susceptible cultivars in orchards in early spring and summer. Flowering, fruit set and immature fruits can be observed during fruit development on a single peduncle; both flowers and fruit set late in the season, in summer rather than spring, and carry fungal infection. Immature rotten fruits are mummified. Colletotrichum fungi overwinter in mummified fruits on the tree, woody tissue and leaves; the fungus has long saprophytic survival ability on dead peduncle and pedicels. Fungal inoculum present year-round throughout the canopy. Hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungal pathogens grow first on living tissue and then cause host death in later, necrotrophic growth. The ability to survive and multiply in the absence of symptoms may explain why anthracnose fungi often cause unexpected crop losses in olives. Successful management of anthracnose relies on understanding the conditions that promote...
Australian & New Zealand Olivegrower & Processor

Australian & New Zealand Olivegrower & Processor

Read Online Published four times per year, this full-colour journal provides all in the olive industry with an abundance of practical information to assist in the production of quality olive products for domestic and discerning export markets. Quality production and products, research and development, marketing and innovation are key requirements of the olive industry. These and many more subjects are covered in Australasia’s only specialist olive journal. Subscription includes the Australian and New Zealand Olive Industry Directory and free sign-up to Friday Olive Extracts. A must-have information package for anyone involved in the olive...
Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral, José Jurado-Bello, M. Isabel Sánchez, Rodrígues de Oliveira, and Antonio Trapero | View Article The influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. Detached olive fruit of ‘Arbequina’, ‘Hojiblanca’, and ‘Picual’ were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°C in humid chambers. Similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 h. Infection occurred at 10 to 25°C, and disease severity was greater and the mean latent period was shorter at 17 to...
Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral and Antonio Trapero | View Article Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 108 conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 104 conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five...
Anthracnose in olives: symptoms, disease cycle and management

Anthracnose in olives: symptoms, disease cycle and management

V. Sergeeva | View Article Anthracnose, caused by the fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is a widespread and severe disease in most olive-growing countries, causing significant yield losses, poor fruit and oil quality. The disease incidence depends on olive variety, environment and virulence of the pathogen among other factors. Warm, rainy, misty and humid conditions or heavy dews have been observed to be associated with severe anthracnose epidemics. The disease may affect up to 80% of olives in susceptible cultivars such as ‘Barnea’ and ‘Manzanillo’ in...
Cherry leafroll virus: Impact on olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality

Cherry leafroll virus: Impact on olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality

Sara Godena, Alessandra Bendini, Elisa Giambanelli, Lorenzo Cerretani, Damir Ðermic´ and Edyta Ðermic | View Article We performed a survey on the yield, quality, and chemical characteristics of virgin olive oils from two olive varieties in Croatian Istria: Frantoio and Ascolana tenera, on Cherry leafroll virus-infected and virusnoninfected trees and on two harvest dates. Free acidity, peroxide value, specific spectrophotometric absorptions at 232 and 270 nm, fatty acid composition, total phenols, o-diphenols, oil color, and pigments were determined. Infected olives had lower oil yield and maturity index versus healthy ones. Oils from infected fruits had significant lower value of K232 and K270 and very elevated total phenols content compared to those obtained from healthy...
Abiotic Diseases of Olive

Abiotic Diseases of Olive

S.M. Sanzani, L. Schena, F. Nigro, V. Sergeeva, A. Ippolito and M.G. Salerno | View Article Several non-parasitic diseases are of primary significance for olive trees growing in the Mediterranean area and other warm-temperate regions of the world. As for other crops, they are generally poorly understood and often completely unrecognized, especially in olive which is considered a crop of marginal lands. The origin may rest with a lack/excess of essential nutrients or an excess of non-essential elements; it may be an unsatisfactory environment: too cold or hot, too wet or dry, or too windy; there may be unsuitable soil characteristics such as poor physical condition, water-logging, salinity, improper pH, and so on. Also pollution in the environment, spray and fire damage, and climatic extremes like lightning, hail, and snow can cause heavy losses to olive. This review focuses on the most important disorders of olive caused by environmental, physical, and chemical stresses that can affect the normal physiological processes in trees. An integrated view is utilized to highlight interactions with plant healthiness, production, and...