Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Effect of Temperature, Wetness Duration, and Planting Density on Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral, José Jurado-Bello, M. Isabel Sánchez, Rodrígues de Oliveira, and Antonio Trapero | View Article The influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. Detached olive fruit of ‘Arbequina’, ‘Hojiblanca’, and ‘Picual’ were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°C in humid chambers. Similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 h. Infection occurred at 10 to 25°C, and disease severity was greater and the mean latent period was shorter at 17 to...
Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Mummified Fruit as a Source of Inoculum and Disease Dynamics of Olive Anthracnose

Juan Moral and Antonio Trapero | View Article Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 108 conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 104 conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five...
Characterization and Pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species

Characterization and Pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species

Juan Moral, Concepción Muñoz-Díez, Nazaret González, Antonio Trapero, and Themis J. Michailides | View Article Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, β- tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in...