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In recent years increasing global interest in health and the environment has stimulated studies of alternatives to the usual procedures for controlling pests and diseases. As a result, management decisions now take into account the impact of control methods on native flora and fauna. Control of olive pests continues to attract interest and requires a high level of attention. Pest control is fundamental to sustainable olive crop production, in terms of both quality and quantity; however the protection of the environment is now factored into the equation. In particular, diseases and pests associated with environmental stress and unfavorable climatic conditions impact greatly on sustainable olive production and olive oil quality. They must be controlled, while also ensuring the exclusion of chemical residues in table olives and olive oil, a central aspect of product quality and food safety for the industry. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices, and has proven a viable answer to both of these needs.